Ультразвуковой дефектоскоп, предназначенный для определения дефектов внутреннего типа в изделиях из металлов, широкого спектра . - МПС РФ, 1999 г. 20. Инструкция по ультразвуковому контролю деталей локомотивов и вагонов электропоездов на базе программируемого дефектоскопа УД2-102. ЦТт - 18/3..
Effects of Gender and Menstrual Cycle on Colonic Transit Time in Healthy Subjects. Abstract. Background : Measuring colonic transit time (CTT) by the radio- opaque marker method is simple, widely available and important for the diagnosis of slow transit constipation. Moreover, the effects of gender and menstrual cycle on CTT remain controversial. Thus, in this study, we examined the effects of gender and menstrual cycle on CTT in healthy subjects. Methods : We measured CTT in 4. M, 2. 1F) by using a radio- opaque marker, Kolomark™. Two simple abdominal radiographs were taken on the 4th and 7th days.
Journal List · Korean J Intern Med · v.18(3); 2003 Sep; PMC4531623. Logo of kjim. Korean J Intern Med. 2003 Sep; 18(3): 181–186. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2003.18. Скачать бесплатно презентацию на тему "Стратегия наращивания промышленного потенциала. Загружай и скачивай презентации бесплатно!
ЦТт-18/3. На сегодняшний день пассажирам в поездах бесплатно оказывается первая доврачебная медицинская помощь, осу-ществляется застил постели в фирменных поездах, а также во всех поез-дах инвалидам, больным людям и пассажирам, следующим с малолет-ними..
Открытый доступ: все научные публикации в КиберЛенинке доступны бесплатно. скачать pdf Quote. скачивания. 0. Центры: центры трансфера технологий; центры коммерциализации НИОКР. Конструкторские бюро 8 18 3. ЦТт-18/3 Инструкция по ультразвуковому контролю деталей локомотивов и вагонов электропоездов на базе программируемого дефектоскопа УД2-102.. Скачать. ЦТт-18/3. Инструкция по ультразвуковому контролю деталей локомотивов и вагонов электропоездов на базе программируемого дефектоскопа УД2-102.. Магнитопорошковый метод;; ЦТт-18/2 Инструкция по неразрушающему контролю деталей и узлов локомотивов. Вихретоковый метод;; ЦТт-18/3 Инструкция по ультразвуковому контролю деталей локомотивов и. Скачать книгу .
Average daily intake of dietary fiber and menstrual history were surveyed. Results : The mean CTT of the 4. The mean CTT was not significantly different between the male and female subjects (2.
However, the mean CTT of 1. Serum progesterone level, age, BMI, and the average daily intake of dietary fiber did not correlate with CTT. Conclusion : The effects of the menstrual cycle should be considered in interpreting CTT in young women. Keywords: Colonic transit time, Gender, Menstrual cycle. INTRODUCTIONIdiopathic constipation is one of the most common functional digestive complaints. It can be divided into slow transit constipation and pelvic outlet obstruction, and colonic transit studies are necessary for their differential diagnosis.
Techniques of measuring colonic transit include the use of 1) non- absorbable markers, 2) colonic scintigraphy, and 3) radio- opaque markers. Techniques that involve non- absorbable markers, colored powders or chemically detectable markers, such as chromium oxide, are now obsolete because they are inconvenient, necessitating the- collection and examination of stools for several days. Colonic scintigraphy has become the method of choice for assessing colonic transit. However, this method requires skilled personnel and expensive facilities. Radiological techniques involving ingestion of radio- opaque markers of variable shapes or sizes have been devised for measuring colonic transit. These tests may require several abdominal radiographs taken for up to 7 days following marker ingestion.
This process was simplified by taking one or two radiographs at the 4th and/or 7th day from marker ingestion. In Korea, the commonly used marker, Sitzmark™ (Konsyl Pharmaceuticals Inc., Texas, USA), has had limitations in its use due to high cost and difficulty in importation. However, recently, a domestically manufactured radio- opaque marker, Kolomark™, was introduced. Kolomark™ has been reported to be more radio- opaque and cheaper. Until now, even though there were several reports of colonic transit studies using Kolomark™, it was thought that normative data on healthy Koreans were still lacking. Despite longstanding disputes, it is not certain whether there is any difference in colonic transit time (CTT) between men and women, and whether CTT varies according to the menstrual cycle in women.
Several studies have shown that CTT in women was longer than that in men. CTT. Two previous studies. GI) transit time was more prolonged in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase; however, other studies. Thus, we measured CTT in healthy subjects by using a radio- opaque marker, Kolomark™, and examined the effects of gender and menstrual cycle on CTT.
Additionally, we investigated whether other factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and dietary fiber intake also affect CTT. MATERIALS AND METHODS1. Subjects. Forty two healthy subjects (2.
M, 2. 1F) were recruited by intra- hospital advertisements. The ethical committee and institutional review board of our institution approved our study protocol. We obtained written consent to participate in the study from all the healthy subjects. Subjects were chosen from patients above 1.
None complained of GI symptoms including constipation and diarrhea, nor did any have a history of GI disease. GI symptoms were based on the Rome II criteria.
The other exclusion criteria were as follows: 1) pregnancy, 2) post- menopause, 3) previous abdomen operation except appendectomy or cesarean section, 4) having taken medicine known to affect GI motility during the previous one week, 5) diabetes mellitus, 6) other severe medical illnesses, 7) obesity with a BMI> 3. Obese subjects were excluded because of a previous report. Methods. We had the subjects fill up a questionnaire about their bowel habits, stool frequency, GI symptoms, such as constipation, diarrhea, smoking, consumption of alcohol or coffee, menstrual cycle and last menstruatial period. We measured the subjects’ body weight and height with a Body Composition Analyzer (In. Body 3. 0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). All the female subjects were confirmed to have a negative serum pregnancy test (Gravindex; Testpack™, Abbott, IL, USA) before the study. The CTT was measured by using radio- opaque markers.
The subjects each ingested one capsule that contained 2. Kolomark™, M. I. Tech., Pyongtaik, Korea) in the morning at 2. Localization of markers on abdominal films relied on identifying bony structures as suggested by Arhan et al. The markers located to the right of the vertebral spinous processes above a line from the fifth vertebra to the right pelvic outlet were assigned to the right colon, markers to the left of the vertebral spinous processes and above an imaginary line from the fifth lumbar vertebra to the anterior superior iliac crest were assigned to the left colon, and markers inferior to a line from the pelvic brim on the right and the superior iliac crest on the left were judged to be in the recto- sigmoid colon and rectum.
The total and segmental CTT’s were calculated as 1. Subjects were asked to avoid unusually intensive physical activity and alcohol consumption, and to follow their usual daily lifestyles during the study. After having a dietitian give directions to the subjects, we had all the subjects keep their food diaries for three days and later analyzed them by using a food composition database and a software called as ‘Nutrition Anywhere ‘9.
Korean Dietetic Association, and estimated the average daily amount of dietary intake of nutrients and fiber. Based on the information acquired from the questionnaires by the female subjects, we estimated whether they were in the luteal or follicular phase during the colonic transit study. To measure serum sex hormone levels in the female subjects, 1.
L of blood sampling was performed on the 1st day of the colon transit study and their sera were stored at −7. C until the measurement. Serum estradiol (Coat- a- count Estradiol DPC, Abbott, IL, USA) and progesterone (Coat- a- count Progesterone DPC, Abbott, IL, USA) levels were measured by radioimmunnoassay. Statistical analysis. All the data were expressed as ‘mean±standard deviation (SD)’.
Student’s t- test, Mann- Whitney U test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used in the analysis as appropriate. The analysis of the data was performed with a statistic package SPSS/PC window 1. Statistical Package for the Social Science, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Values of p less than 0. RESULTS1. Comparison of baseline characteristics and dietary intake according to gender.
The mean age of the 4. BMI was higher in the male subjects than in the female subjects (p< 0. The smoking frequency was higher in the male subjects than in the female subjects (1. The average dietary fiber intake was significantly less in the female subjects than in the male subjects (3. However, the average dietary intake of other nutrients including carbohydrate, protein and fat were not significantly different between the male subjects and the female subjects (Table 1). Comparison of baseline characteristics and dietary intake between the male subjects and the female subjects. Comparison of CTT according to gender.
The mean total CTT of the 4. The upper limit of total CTT, described as ‘mean+2. SD’, was 6. 5. 3 h: 5.
The mean total CTT of the male subjects (2. Figure 1). Comparing segmental CTT’s between the male and female subjects, the left CTT was significantly longer in the female subjects (1. However, the right CTT and recto- sigmoid CTT were not different between the male and female subjects (Table 2). Total colonic transit time (CTT) of the male and female subjects. Horizontal bars indicate mean. Comparison of CTT’s according to gender and menstrual cycle. Comparison of CTT between luteal phase and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
The mean total CTT of the female subjects in the luteal phase (4. Among the segmental CTT’s, the recto- sigmoid CTT was significantly longer in the female subjects in the luteal phase (1.
Table 2). Comparing baseline characteristics between the female subjects in the luteal phase and those in the follicular phase, there were no significant differences in mean age, BMI, and daily dietary intake of fiber. The mean serum progesterone level of the female subjects in the luteal phase (4. L) was significantly higher than that of those in the follicular phase (2. L, p< 0. 0. 5), while there was no significant difference of the mean serum estradiole level between the two groups (Table 3). Comparison of baseline characteristics, dietary intake and serum female sex hormone levels between women in luteal phase and those in follicular phase. Correlations between clinical variables and CTTAge, BMI, daily dietary intake of fiber, serum progesterone level, and serum estradiole level did not show significant correlation with the total and segmental CTT’s except that the amount of dietary fiber intake had a positive correlation with right CTT (r=0.
CTT (r=0. 4. 60, p=0. Table 4). Correlations- γ values (p values) between clinical variables and CTT’s. DISCUSSIONWhen we measured the CTT of the 4. Kolomark™, a domestically manufactured radio- opaque marker, the average time was 2. Sitzmark™4, 1. 1).
The reported CTT’s of healthy Koreans seem to be shorter than those of Westerners: two Western reports showed 3.